What is HVAC and why it is required in industries
HVAC stands heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning. HVAC are systems that heat and cool small homes, apartments, condos etc, commercial buildings e.g. hotels, hospitals, schools, universities, office building etc. and industrial buildings e.g factories, warehouse, manufacturing plants.
HVAC system is an essential component of environment and a good quality HVAC system provide indoor comfort and thermal control. The system for heating and cooling you use in your houses are also HVAC systems.
HVAC systems help in controlling the temperature, humidity and air quality to provide a comfortable indoor environment to both residents and equipment in the building.
- Heating- The heating aspect is accomplished by producing the hot air through a radiant heat system or by the supply air system.
- Ventilation- It is achieved by maintaining clean air in the space and extracting polluted air out of the space. It also keeps internal air circulating and removes the excessive moisture.
- Air-Conditioning- It lowers the temperature and maintains appropriate humidity levels using air-cooled or water-cooled systems.
HVAC systems are very important during the architectural design of a building because:
- The building comfort level is directly related to the success of an HVAC system
- The systems require substantial floor space for housing the unit as well as the distribution equipment.
- HVAC units required essential investment
- HVAC systems require a large portion of the operating expenses of the building.
Types of HVAC System
The types of HVAC systems can be divided into three broad categories:
- Centralized System:
It is a single system which supplies the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning) needs of the building. Mostly the centralized system is located in a single zone. They are consolidated units and typically use the water as a cooling medium. The centralized system is better to control and have greater load management potential. Centralized systems are expensive to install and are more sophisticated to operate and maintain.
- Packaged System:
The packaged HVAC system is often used in buildings without adequate space for all the separate components. Heating &air conditioning systems are available in one packaged unit. The packaged HVAC system contains the following:
- The air conditioner/heat pump together with the evaporator/fan coil in one unit.
- Control/Thermostat interface for complete control of the system.
- Air quality improvers like air purifiers, cleaners, ventilators or UV lamps, these gears make the air extra clean before it circulates in your home or office.
- Individual or Decentralized Systems:
They provide energy using the various individual units in various locations of a building. The advantage of individual units is that they are easy to control and have a lower investment at initial. However, in the large buildings, installing an individual system can be a nightmare to terms of maintenance, if many systems are distributed across the building.
HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system is an important component of a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient building. The HVAC systems come in various types depending upon the location and size of a building.