Category Archives: Cleanroom

How to do right HVAC Design for Hospitals ?

HVAC design is not only performing heating and cooling load calculations, but it also includes selecting the right HVAC system type and equipment, and precise HVAC Engineering. HVAC designers also need to know the premises, the occupancy type and ASHRAE codes that govern the occupancy. Good HVAC engineering practices are required for proper design, ventilation rates, and temperature control aspects.

HVAC design goals

The goal of every HVAC designer is to efficiently provide safe, comfortable environments. However, for hospitals, the process needs to be more refined and must follow codes in effect, energy efficiency, occupant comfort, ventilation, and air quality. HVAC designs, parameters, guidelines, and governing codes have continued to evolve and develop with additional standards over the past several years for hospitals.

HVAC For Biotech Startups
HVAC For Biotech Startups

How to do HVAC Design for hospitals?

Additionally, hospitals require a higher level of life safety consideration which makes conditions more stringent for HVAC Design. It starts with planning and selecting the HVAC system and analyzing the architectural floor plan that has the appropriate space name and divisions as denoted by legends.

Also, the medical facilities administration team must work in conjunction with HVAC designers. Each of the zones in the hospital facility like OT, CT, X-Ray, OPD has different heating and cooling loads and air-change requirements. Each occupancy or room has a different type of specific minimum air change per hour (ACH) requirements for both total and outside air as per ASHRAE guidelines for hospital design and regulations. The ventilation rates provide comfort, odor control in areas of patient care and treatment. An HVAC Designer must think for fully ducted systems for future flexibility in expanding or changing space occupancy types.

HVAC Design & Varying Occupancy

The importance of the occupancy determination then identifies which additional codes must be used for the HVAC design criteria. Sometimes a physician office and clinic have equipment and staff that perform procedures similar to those in hospitals and outpatient occupancies. These could include endoscopic procedures, CT scans or cancer treatment functions. As long as the number of simultaneously treated patients is fewer than health care occupancy definitions, no additional code-related requirements are needed in the design. However, some consideration might be given to space temperature, airflow direction, pressure relationships, and filtration to enhance the comfort and care of the patient and health care providers. Prior to HVAC design, it is important to understand the space use, the procedures to be performed and the number of patients who will receive treatment at any given time. This information helps to determine the HVAC design parameters for the project.

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Clean Room – Definition & Applications


Cleanrooms are used in industries where small particles can adversely affect the manufacturing process, thus deteriorating quality of the material in process.
Clean rooms vary in size,complexity & structure and has wider applications in industries like Semiconductor Manufacturing, Pharmaceuticals,i.e. Biotech, Medical Devices, Surgical Devices,and Life Sciences, as well as in critical manufacturing processes.

Clean rooms are designed in such a way that particulate contamination gets reduced and to control environmental factors like Temperature, Relative Humidity & Pressure Difference.
This is being achieved through two kinds of filters:
HEPA Filters i.e. High Efficiency Particulate Air which trap particles which are 0.3 micron and larger in size.
ULPA Filters i.e. Ultra Low Particulate Air Filters are used where stringent cleanliness conditions are required.


People who work in cleanrooms undergo extensive training to maintain the cleaning standards.
They enter and exit the cleanroom through by wearing special clothes designed to trap contaminants which are shed by the bodies of people working in the clean rooms.
Depending on the complexity & classification of clean room, clean room clothing could be as extensive as fully covered in multiple layered dresses with self contained breathing apparatus.

Cleanroom clothing is used to prevent microbes, particles from being released off the wearer’s body and contaminating the environment. The cleanroom clothing must not release any kind of particles or fibers to prevent contamination of the environment.
So much so is the importance of clean room clothing, that in case if the same is not being maintain, it can certainly degrade the performance of semi conductors and can lead to cross infection between pateints and healthy people in Pharmaceuticals or Medical Industries.